Artificial Intelligence is a trending technological topic that has been steadily on the rise for the last two years. Numerous companies, including some of the tech giants are heavily investing in AI. According to McKinsey & Co., Baidu and Google spent between $20bn and $30bn on AI in 2016, for both R&D activities and acquisitions of AI-related companies.
This surge of interest on AI is largely due to recent advances in this field. In particular, in March 2016 and May 2017, Google’s AlphaGo AI engine beat two of the most prominent grandmasters in the centuries-old Chinese game, Go.
While this may sound similar to earlier achievements (e.g., In 1997, when IBM’s Deep Blue computer bested chess champion Garry Kasparov), it is considered a breakthrough; AlphaGo employed human-like reasoning over a few optimal moves based on deep learning, instead of an exhaustive analysis of all possible moves as in Deep Blue’s case.
This breakthrough has been empowered by advances in Big Data and neural networks, as well as by the evolution of computers’ computational abilities (as per the famous Moore’s law). As a result, there are increasing possibilities to apply AI in various domains. Industries such as utilities, oil and gas, and manufacturing are looking to leverage the power of the emerging “deep learning paradigm”, towards intelligent reasoning and greater automation.
In this context, we must consider the application of new advances in AI in the field of industrial maintenance, as evident in recent due diligence reports and the emergence of AI-based enterprises and products for the Industrial internet.
In principle, AI refers to machines that can act like humans in a given context, through:
Based on this definition, AI-based systems have been around for several decades and have been applied in maintenance, repair and field service engineering operations. In fact, we can break down the history of AI-based systems in maintenance into three phases:
For example, fuzzy logic systems have been used to prioritize different maintenance approaches and policies. The merit of such systems stems from their ability to evaluate alternative policies against multiple criteria and indicators such as number of failures, life of specific components and Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE).
Similarly, expert systems have been used to assist professionals in the inspection and maintenance of offshore structures. They provide quantitative and qualitative knowledge about defects in the structures, along with relevant recommendations for dealing with these defects. Expert systems complement the knowledge of the professional with a pool of databases and reasoning, which help users assess the severity of the defects and decide the best way to resolve them.
This phase of applying AI in industrial maintenance involved the development of maintenance systems that combined more than one AI technique in an integrated system. For example, several research works have demonstrated that AI techniques can be combined with Operations Research (OR) and constraint programming techniques to increase the credibility of maintenance systems.
During this phase, the scope of AI-based maintenance projects expanded beyond failure modes detection and assessment to maintenance projects budgeting and selecting optimal maintenance methods.
In recent years, AI systems have begun to employ deep learning as a means of leveraging the vast amounts of maintenance data that are generated by wireless sensors networks and internet of things deployments. Deep learning is based on complex neural networks, which mimic the operation of the human brain. Common maintenance use cases based on deep learning include:
While these systems employ deep learning, they also combine additional machine learning techniques and modalities, which optimizes results.
Today’s AI systems can be classified into two categories:
Currently, most AI systems fall in the realm of weak AI, which highlights the importance of proper datasets. In the future, we expect that stronger AI systems will emerge to cope with more complex and unpredictable situations.
The deployment of deep learning, industrial robots and other forms of state-of-the-art AI in maintenance tasks is promising, though still in its infancy. AI is not a panacea and it won’t resolve all our maintenance challenges any time soon.
Nevertheless, maintenance enterprises cannot afford to ignore AI. Artificial Intelligence is disrupting industrial processes and is one of the main technological trends of the digitization of industry.
Rather, enterprises need to take careful steps to adopt AI, by maintaining a balance between their practical business needs and the pace of innovation.
These recommendations can help maintenance enterprises adopt AI successfully:
Artificial Intelligence isn’t new, but recent exponential advances mean that enterprise maintenance organizations and those in other related industries must pay attention. It’s time for them to explore which parts of their maintenance processes could benefit from AI and its human-like reasoning capabilities. Combining machine intelligence with human intelligence will increase automation and asset productivity – it’s only a matter of time.
John Soldatos holds a Phd in Electrical & Computer Engineering. He is co-founder of the open source platform OpenIoT and has had a leading role in over 15 Internet-of-Things & BigData projects in manufacturing, logistics, smart energy, smart cities and healthcare. He has published more than 150 articles in international journals, books and conference proceedings, while he has authored numerous technical articles and blogs posts in the areas of IoT, cloud computing and BigData. He has recently edited and co-authored the book “Building Blocks for IoT Analytics”.